Some of us might be preparing for Hajj, others might just be curious as to how to perform Hajj, either way, the season of Hajj is upon us and ideally, everyone planning on going to Hajj is already prepared. As for the brothers and sisters who are not prepared, the following information might be beneficial.
Most of us will have some guide that we hope knows their Fiqh, some might not. In both cases, studying the Fiqh of Hajj before going to perform it is at least recommended. Perhaps the guide does not know their Hajj jurisprudence properly and their might be a possibility that their School of thought differs.
Before the Muslim gets into a state of Ihram, it is recommended to clip one’s nails, mustache, the private area and the armpits, then they would make Ghusl and wear the proper attire of the white sheets and the sandals. Once the person is departing towards their destination, they pray a Fard or Nafl, then they would make the intention of getting closer to Allah Ta’ala while saying the Talbiya “labbayka’ Lahoumma Labbayka ‘Hajja” which is a response to Allah Ta’ala’s call for us to establish Hajj. The person could add the condition that their arrival is based on Allah Ta’ala’s Will (Hadith from Ibn Majah).
It is also recommended to send prayers and salutations upon the Prophet Salla Lahou Alaihi Wa Alihi Wassalam whenever they finish reciting the Talbiya all while renewing their Talbiya anytime there is a change happening in the journey (riding, descending, prayer,…). While on their way, it is best to refrain from idle talk and anything that is reprehensible. They need to instead increase their thikr, their positive contributions and increase their good deeds (Purifying the heart and their purpose in making the journey). Upon entering Makkah, it is recommended to make Ghusl and enter the city from the top and to enter the Haram from the door of Bani Shayba (The door of Salam). They would then say: “BismiLahi wa BiLahi wa ila Llahi, Allahouma’ Fta’h li abwaba faddlik”. Upon seeing the Ka’ba, there is a Dua that can be said for glorifying Allah Ta’ala.
The Tawaf of the Ka’ba can start by kissing the Black Stone or touching it when it is in front of the person, and if it is not possible one can simply point at it with the proper intention and say another Dua that should be memorized. The Tawaf of the Ka’ba should be performed quickly in the first three rounds while touching the Yemeni corner as well if possible. The next four rounds of Tawaf can be done while walking casually instead. There is also a Dua to be made upon completing each round of Tawaf. Upon completing all seven rounds, two Rak’as can be made behind the Maqam of Ibraheem Alaihi’Salam with Surah Faitha and Kafiroon, as well as Fatiha and Ikhlass. Drinking from ZamZam is next and performing a Dua afterwards is recommended. It is also recommended to leave from the door of Saffaa while reading Aya #158 from Surah Baqara about the Saffaa and Marwa.
Upon arriving at Assafaa, Dua can be made as well that should also be memorized and the recommended acts are plenty. The trip to Al Marwa and back to Assafaa needs to be completed seven times ending at Al Marwa visiting each side four times. This is where the Umra can be completed (After clipping the hair), but we are focusing on just Hajj at this moment and pairing the two is also an option. The person would then leave to Mina after Duha while making Talbiya and stay there for five consecutive prayers (Until Fajr of the next day).
On the day of Arafat, one leaves Mina while making Talbia towards Namira and they would stay there until high noon. They would then make Ghusl and pray Duhr and Asr in the Masjid. What’s next is heading towards Arafat to stand there. There is no specific place to stand according to the Hadith in Sahih Muslim that the Prophet Salla Lahou Alaihi Wa Alihi Wassalam said “I stand here and all of Arafat is a place for standing” (The Prophet stood on the stones at the base of Mt. Arrahma which is the best). This step of standing in Arafat can be conducting standing, while riding or sitting; while mentioning Allah Ta’ala and making Dua until the sun sets. One can make Talbiya until Maghrib is prayed.
The night is spent in Muzdalifa until the Fajr is prayed, then the intention for standing in the Mash’ar Alharam anywhere in Muzdalifa needs to be made and standing anywhere in that area is acceptable. Right before the sunrise, the person would pick 7 pebbles to throw at Al-Jamaratul’Aqaba. The next destination is going back to Mina all while making Talbiya. Upon arrival to the site for throwing the pebbles, saying Allahou Akbar before throwing the pebbles. At this moment, sacrificing the animal in Mina is due or having someone sacrifice in their stead if they are not able to. They would then clip their hair or shave it fully; to shave it would be better. This concludes the state of Ihram and everything that was permissible is again permissible.
The person could then cover their heads and wear their clothes and head back to Makkah for the Tawaf of exiting the Hajj ritual. While in a state of ritual purity, seven rounds of Tawaf are due similar to the ones in the beginning of the Hajj process. The only difference is the clothing is not the same and the first three rounds of Tawaf do not need to be done quickly. They would then pray to Rak’as behind the Maqam of Sayidina Ibraheem Alaihi Assalam. The first Sa’y between the Safaa and Marwa is enough and if desired, it can be repeated depending on whether Hajj and Umra have been combined or not.
The person would return once again to Mina to finish throwing the pebbles. They would spend the night in Mina and the next day they would visit the Jamarat and throw seven pebbles onto the first Jamara saying Allahou Akbar before each throw. This can be concluded with facing the Qibla and making a Dua. The process is repeated for the middle and last Jamara without any Dua after the last Jamara. The next day, the same process is repeated for the three Jamarat. If they are in a hurry, they can leave Mina towards Makkah before the sun sets. If they are not in a hurry, they spend another night in Mina and the process of throwing for the Jamarat is repeated the next day. Then they leave to Makkah and complete the Tawaf of completing Hajj which is similar to the one mentioned before with the completion of the two rak’as behind the Maqam of Sayidina Ibraheem Alaihi Assalam. Then the traveler makes the Dua for returning home and returns to their family.
This Hajj process is translated from Minhajoul Muslim by Abu Bakr Al Jazairi and he mainly used the authentic Ahadith and the most agreed upon steps of Hajj as far as I am aware. There are many more etiquettes and sunan that can be mentioned, yet brevity is necessary and a more in-depth study needs to be conducted by the students of knowledge.
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